Ce que nous avons eu de meilleur (Littérature Française) (French Edition)

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Since he could enter his monogram freely in Amiatine manuscripts, he seems to have been in charge of the library and scriptorium, but no librarian or abbot at Monte Amiata named Bonizo is recorded. However, in a charter from the year , when Maurus was abbot , we find a mention of a Bonizo who is abbot of the nearby abbey of San Pietro in Campo CDA 2.

Perhaps the monk who entered his monogram in the books later became abbot at San Pietro? If so, his activity as scribe and commentator could be dated to about the year , which is palaeographically possible. In script, decoration and general design, Florence plut. The depiction of Bede in Perugia 3, f.

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This is the kind of manuscript that would have intrigued Ughelli, but it had departed Monte Amiata long before his time. Its contents are identical to two slightly later eleventh- century manuscripts that were evidently also produced at the Badia Amiatina, but not for it, Florence plut. There can be little doubt that these manuscripts are all of Amiatine origin, since one of the items found in all three is a computistical text, Diuisiones temporum, whose annus praesens is According to monastic legend, it was in this year that the Badia Amiatina was founded.

In principio mundi, quod est primi hominis initium, usque ad aduentum saluatoris nostri Iesu Christi, quod fuit xlii anno imperii Octauiani Caesaris, in sexto miliario saeculi computantur anni circiter quinque milia cxcvm. A natiuitate uero Iesu Christi domini nostri, quae fuit xlii anno imperii Octauiani Caesaris, usque in praesentem annum, id est, tertio regni Rachis in Italia, sexto pontificatus Zachariae papae urbis Romae, in- dictio xv, sunt anni dcgxlv. Restant igitur de sexto miliario anni circiter lui. Finitis uero sex aetatibus, id est, sex miliaribus, saeculi terminus est.


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Si uero aliquid superstite- rit extra saeculum fit. Kalendae dictae sunt a colendo, quia in eodem die populus Romanus a colenda noua tempora uocabatur. Idus dicitur dies, qui diuidit menses. The original folios numbered contained Isidore's Etymologiae, as in Conv. The manuscript is written in two of 48 lines, x Two additional manuscripts now in Perugia can be added to this family. Perugia 41 is another giant manuscript, ff. First we find the Ps. Re- migius commentary on Matthew that is found in the Bonizo manuscript, Barb.

Remigius on John f. The same style of initials and decoration in Perugia 3 is found in the giant Perugia 42, ff. I believe that this manuscript, containing Augustinus, Enarrationes in Psalmos, is also from the Amiatine scriptorium.

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The dimensions of its folios are slightly larger than those of the Codex Amiatinus x! Books and learning at Monte Amiata during the eleventh century. The surviving books from the Badia Amiatina that date from the eleventh century present a clear picture of the literary culture of the abbey. Perhaps the most characteristic is the paucity of patristic literature.

Jerome is represented only by his commentary on Ecclesiastes Amiatino 3. By Augustine we find only De Genesi ad litteram Perugia 3, saec. There is no trace of such influential and popular works such as Confessiones, Tractatus in loannem, De trinitate or De ciuitate dei. It may come as a surprise to learn that the most popular author by far at the Badia Amiatina was Bede, whose works are found in many codices Amiatini: Since these collections are uncatalogued or poorly catalogued, most of the codices Amiatini containing Bede's works discussed here were not included in Laistner's A Hand-List of Bede Manuscripts.

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Remigius commentary on Matthew Perugia 41 and Barb. Historians too are well represented, including Paul the Deacon's Historia romana plut. During the ninth century the literary interests at Monte Amiata were evidently more diverse, for the monks preserved for us some very rare texts, such as the work of Firmicus Maternus, De errore profanarum religionum Pal. To judge from the volumes in their library, during the eleventh century and earlier, the Benedictine scholars at the Badia Amiatina were especially in biblical exegesis.

In addition to standard works from Augustine, Jerome and Bede, they had managed to collect many other texts, such as Iunilius' Instituta regularia diuinae legis Florence Conv. From these extant manuscripts we know that scribes at work in the scriptorium at the Badia Amiatina had access to a well-stocked library, both in the ninth century and again in the eleventh. So far I have been able to identify only one of the ninth- century exemplars that was used in the production of an eleventh-century The text of Augustine's De Genesi ad litteram in San Marco served as the exemplar for the scribe who copied the work into Perugia 3.

We can form an idea of the remarkable depth of the library holdings at Monte Amiata by listing the works roughly in chronological order that are to be found in just four Amiatine products: Perugia 3 and the three manuscripts discussed by Bischoff, Amiatino 3, plut. Twenty-six major works in just four manuscripts! The monks' passion for giant books was extraordinary. If the manuscripts I have discovered so far are generally indicative of the character of the library, fifty eleventh-century codices Amiatini would equal roughly the contents of several hundred manuscripts that were of size.

If more of the ninth-century exemplars of these works had survived, we could better appreciate the riches once conserved in the abbey's library. To these works must be added all those that served the monks when they copied excerpts onto the folios left blank in their enormous manuscripts. From other sources we know that the legal holdings were also very consistent, and there was a copy of the Liber pontificalis. The scholarly readers and scribes at Monte Amiata did not limit their activities to collecting and copying texts.

They were also instrumental in creating and new versions of texts that were not composed at Monte Amiata. The traditions of two texts in Barb. In the introduction to his new edition of Bede's commentary on the Apocalypse, Roger Gryson has drawn attention to the important role that Barb. Another example is Bonizo's creation of a homiliary based on the Ps. Remigius commentary on Matthew. An indication of the high level of culture at Monte Amiata from the ninth to the eleventh century is the quality of the writing in Greek that is found in several of the codices Amiatini.

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Already in the ninth-century manuscripts, Greek was written for example, in Porphyrio's commentary on Horace, Vat. Indeed, the scribes and scholars at work at Monte Amiata seem to have had a penchant for Greek, but whether they knew the language is a question I leave for others to debate. It is remarkable that Bonizo, who is known to us from many Amiatini, made an entry using Greek letters in Barb. In this case, he even wrote his name in Greek letters. Another entry in very similar Greek letters, probably also by Bonizo, is found in Perugia 3, f.

Original compilations and original compositions are scattered throughout these manuscripts. An abbot or monk must have created a notebook or personal anthology in a few unbound quires, where he jotted down brief excerpts from works he read, essentially on issues of interest in the monastic environment. It is easy to imagine that the compiler was Winizo, Bonizo or one of their colleagues, since portions of the Florilegium Amiatinum, were copied in the early eleventh century into both Perugia 3 f.

The computistical work, Diuisiones temporum, has been discussed above; it circulated in Conv. The unpublished and unstudied commentary whose author was inspired by Bede on the Gospel of John in Perugia 41 may also have been created at Monte Amiata. In the days of Cicero and Virgil, Italy was primarily an exporter of Latin literary texts, but after the arrival of the new religion from Palestine, the situation changed.

Greek and Latin versions of biblical books arrived in the Italian peninsula from the eastern Mediterranean and the works of Cyprian and Tertullian came from North Africa. The works of important new authors such as Augustine and Jerome also had to be imported. Later, the works of Eucherius, Cassian and others came from France, and then from Spain came the works of Isidore and from England the works of Bede.

In general, however, after the fifth century, there was little need to import texts, especially in Rome and southern Italy. In a captivating carrellata, Bernhard. Bischoff sketched how Italian books were exported from the eighth to the eleventh century, but how books were imported into Italy during the same period has not received attention, as far as I know.

To judge from extant manuscripts, the works of Bede, who was the second most popular author in the ninth century, did not circulate in Italy before the year Perugia 3 and Amiatino 3 show how the works of Bede began to be copied in Italy along with those of 'modern' Garolingian authors such as Alcuin and Hrabanus Maurus in the eleventh century. This phenomenon may be related to the arrival of the Cluniacs and the foundation of abbeys such as San Benedetto Polirone near Mantua in the tenth century, which set the stage for a change in literary tastes.

It may also reflect the influence of literary tastes from the imperial court in Germany. Books such as Perugia 3 and Amiatino 3 show us how texts from north of the Alps, such as the biblical commentaries of Bede, Alcuin and Hrabanus Maurus, Einhard's Vita Karoli, and Hrabanus' De laudibus sanctae crucis began to circulate in influential circles in Italy in the first years of the eleventh.

It is of interest to note that several codices Amiatini passed into the libraries of famous humanists. The many historical texts in plut. The medieval library of manuscript books at Monte Amiata began to disappear in the early seventeenth century, about the time that the ancient books in the library of Verona were put aside for safe keeping, only to be rediscovered in by Scipione Maffei.

How did this extraordinary group of large and important manuscripts escape detection for so many centuries, and why were the evident signs of their origin overlooked? The books that remained at the abbey for most of the Middle Ages were dispersed to different libraries, such as the Barberini collection during the seventeenth century and then to the Casanatense and the Laurenziana at the suppression in But several books had left the library for Perugia already in the eleventh or twelfth Some of the ninth-century books that I believe were produced at Monte crossed the Alps soon after they were written, such as Oxford Laud Misc.

The codices Amiatini now in Bamberg, Berlin, Leipzig and elsewhere were probably taken to Germany at an early date too. Coincidence too was an important factor.

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The cathedral library in Perugia was closed for many years and was only reopened in the year The history of the fondo Amiatino at the Laurenziana has not been examined. The development of the Barberini collection still awaits an investigation, and the catalogue of the in the Biblioteca Casanatense is incomplete. Bernhard Bischoff singled out many ninth- and eleventh-century Amiatine manuscripts, but did not stumble upon the clues of their origin. The two key manuscripts are Perugia 3 and Amiatino 3, but it happened that neither of the two experts who could have spotted the connection knew both well.

Bernhard Bischoff did not seem to discuss Perugia 3, and E. Knut Berg came close to identifying the group, but he seems to have been largely unaware of Perugia 3. On the other hand, we can be certain many more manuscripts that were once at Monte Amiata and either created there or brought there still remain to be Here I offer a few examples. To judge from the plates of Monte Cassino 41 and Monte Cassino 93 that were reproduced in Francis Newton's monograph, these could be products of the Amiatine scriptorium, although I have not examined them.

The reader will notice the in contents between Perugia 3 and Monte Gassino 41, which contains four works of Bede: De tabernaculo; De templo; the commentary on Ezra and Nehemiah; and the commentary on Tobit; the first three are also in Perugia 3. Monte Gassino 41, pp. Monte Gassino 93, pp. After noting how the monks at Monte Cassino never seem to have mastered the art of preparing parchment properly, Newton reports that the writing in both Monte Cassino 41 and Monte Cassino 93 has not flaked off or faded, which occurred in most Monte Cassino products from the eleventh century.

Additional codices Amiatini will probably be found in the Barberini collection at the Vatican and elsewhere. For example, one would like to know how the Barberini Gospels, written in Anglo- Saxon majuscule in the eighth century, Barb.